Capabilities for custom post types in WordPress

I’ve just had to break out some serious Capabilities in WordPress today, and I’m documenting the process here in case it helps me in the future (or the past, though it seems unlikely) or anyone else.

The scenario i: I have a custom post type (Video) and I want to allow Editors and Admins to do whatever they want with it. Contributors and Authors (and below) shouldn’t be able to do anything with Video, and I want to create a separate Video Editor role which can do whatever it wants with Video posts. Video Editors should be able to upload images to use as Featured Image for a Video post, but not, as far as possible, mess with the other images in the site.

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